Reconstruction of a Neanderthal woman
Range Expansion of Modern Humans into Europe from the Near East
Simulations begin 1,600 generations ago, with the area of Europe already colonized by Neanderthals shown in light gray, and an origin of modern human expansion indicated by a black arrow (lane A). Lanes (B–F) show the progression of the wave of advance of modern humans (dark gray) into Europe at different times before present. The black band at the front of the expansion wave represents the restricted zone of cohabitation between modern humans and Neanderthals.
Expected Proportion of Neanderthal Lineages (in Black) among European Samples under Demographic Scenario A (Table 1) ) at Different Geographic Locations, for Different Interbreeding Rates