Helgi Avatara (goutsoullac) wrote,
Helgi Avatara
goutsoullac

Vasco-Caucasian

The Vasco-Caucasian hypothesis states that Basque is related to Nakh-Daghestani (NEC) and Abkhaz-Adyghe (NWC).

The proposed time-depth for this hypothetical macro-family is the early Neolithic. Some authors like John Bengtson group Vasco-Caucasian and Burushaski into Macro-Caucasian.

The main source for Vasco-Caucasian etymologies is the Proto-North-Caucasian reconstruction made by Seregi Starostin.

Basque and Iberian form the Vasconic language family. But my colleague Marco Moretti and myself have been able to identify two more Vasco-Caucasian families different from Vasconic.

Latin posseses some substrate loanwords like aquila, cucullus, cucutium, cumulus, lutum, mucus, solum, turris which aren't of IE origin but have a Vasco-Caucasian etymology. I call the source language Apenninic because it was possibly related to the homonymous archaeological culture of the Bronze Age.

Apenninic had a relative in the Iberian Peninsula called Cantabrian, which left loanwords in Basque like burki, kokor, kokotz, kolko, kukur, konkor, moko, mokor, morgoi, morroi, moxo, mozkor, muki, mukurru, tontor, topina.

But there was also another Vasco-Caucasian which left loanwords in Basque. I call it Pyrenaic and was responsible for words like ate, dardala, ilinti, ondiko, samats, simaur, urde, zamar. It seems that Pyrenaic was closer to NEC than the other two families and it was also related to Pre-IE Germanic, as it show a number of etymologies.

As an example of reflexes in the three groups, I'll choose PNC *k'aldlZ:wV: (˜ -tL':w-) 'cheek; chin' (there's no resontrcution of Proto-Vasco-Caucasian yet).

The Cantabrian protoform would be *k'o(l)X:wV:-S:V (˜ -s:V) 'chin', with Basque outputs kokots (HN, L, LN, Z, R), kokotz (L, LN), okots (B) 'chin'.

For Vasconic I reconstruct *k'a(l)G:wV:, which gives Basque aho, ago 'mouth'.

For Pyrenaic I reconstruct the protoform *k'alt:wV: 'cheek', which gives Catalan galta id.


Latin aquila 'eagle' < *?a-qwi:lV ~ PNC *GHwV:lV 'a k. of bird, Yenisseian *ki_la 'crow'. From this source we've also got (native) Iberian bilos 'eagle', Basque mirotz 'kite' < *X:wi:lV-s:V

Latin cucullus 'hood' < *k'Vk'V-lV ~ PNC *k'wek'e 'edge, point, corner'. From this source we've also got (Cantabrian) Basque kukur 'crest' < *k'Vk'V-rV and also (native) hegi 'crest, mountain ridge' < *k'ek'wi

Latin cucutium 'nape' < *k'o(l)X:wV:-S:V ~ PNC *k'aldlZ:wV: 'cheek; chin'. From we've also got (Cantabrian) Basque kokots, (k)okotz 'chin' (but also 'nape' in some dialects)

Latin cumulus 'heap' < *muX:VlV (with metathesis) ~ PNC *muh|alV 'mountain'. From this source we've also got (Cantabrian) Basque mukuru 'full to the top' and mukurru id. < *muX:VrV

Latin lutum 'mud' < *lo:mdZ:V ~ PNC *lo:mdZ:i 'dirt, earth'. No Basque cognates for this item.

Latin mucus 'secretion' < *mV(r)q:V ~ PNC *mh_V:rq:V 'dirt, secretion'. From this source we've also got (Cantabrian) Basque mukur 'dirty' < *mV(r)q:V-rV

Latin solum 'ground, floor' < *tS:olV ~ PNC *tS:Hælu 'earth, ground, sand'. From this source we've also got (Cantabrian) Basque sor(h)o 'meadow, field' and (native) sahil 'plot of land' < *tS:ahlV

Latin turris 'tower' < *t'wo:?-rV ~ PNC *t'we:l?e 'stick; beam, cross-beam'. From this source we've got also (Cantabrian) Basque -tor, -tur(ru) in galdor, galdur(ru) 'summit' and similar words and also (native) zil 'penis' < *t'wi:?lV

Protoforms are reconstructed to match as closely as possible Starostin's PNC for given sound correspondences.

? is the glottal stop, ' indicates a glottalized (ejective) stop, : indicates a long vowel or a geminate consonant, S/Z are respectively the voiceless/voiced post-alveolar sibilant, H is a undeterminated laryngeal, h| is the voiced laryngeal fricative, h_ is the voiceless pharyngeal fricative, X is the voiceless uvular fricative, l is a lateral approximant.

OR

You wrote :
Latin aquila 'eagle' < *?a-qwi:lV ~ PNC *GHwV:lV 'a k. of bird, Yenisseian
*ki_la 'crow'. From this source we've also got (native) Iberian bilos
'eagle', Basque mirotz 'kite' < *X:wi:lV-s:V

The latin word aquila has a short i. Your reconstruction cannot be accepted.
Now aquila is not an obvious non-indo-european word.
Out of *?a-ku?- "eagle", you can derive thru phonotaxis ?ku?- > germanic
ku:-tya > English kite. And Greek aisalon "hawk" < ai-kwya- is not so far.
I would rather suggest a connection with Basque ilhantz ülhantz "kite"
supposing some metathesis *?aku?l- > ahu:l > ülh/ilh-
these words being distant cognates between Basque and PIE.
Metathesis is extremely frequent in Basque.

Under which conditions is *bilos attested or reconstructed ?

Yenissei ki_la "crow" can also be related to PIE *kel/ker "crow and other
noisy kinds of birds (cranes, etc)"
Arnaud
=============

Latin cucullus 'hood' < *k'Vk'V-lV ~ PNC *k'wek'e 'edge, point, corner'.
From this source we've also got (Cantabrian) Basque kukur 'crest' <
*k'Vk'V-rV and also (native) hegi 'crest, mountain ridge' < *k'ek'wi

Latin cucullus can be an indo-european word.
Cf. English hood < *kadh
Latin suggests something like *kukudlos > cucullos thru borrowing.
Meillet suggests a Gaulish or Illyrian loanword.
Arnaud
===========
Latin cucutium 'nape' < *k'o(l)X:wV:-S:V ~ PNC *k'aldlZ:wV: 'cheek; chin'.
From we've also got (Cantabrian) Basque kokots, (k)okotz 'chin' (but also
'nape' in some dialects)

==========
Latin cumulus 'heap' < *muX:VlV (with metathesis) ~ PNC *muh|alV
'mountain'. From this source we've also got (Cantabrian) Basque mukuru 'full
to the top' and mukurru id. < *muX:VrV
============
Generally derived from Pie *keu
Arnaud
===========
Latin lutum 'mud' < *lo:mdZ:V ~ PNC *lo:mdZ:i 'dirt, earth'. No Basque
cognates for this item.
=============
Why should it not be *leu. Cf. polluere ?
Arnaud
=============
Latin mucus 'secretion' < *mV(r)q:V ~ PNC *mh_V:rq:V 'dirt, secretion'. From
this source we've also got (Cantabrian) Basque mukur 'dirty' < *mV(r)q:V-rV

Generally derived from Pie *meug
Basque lost *m,
This is a suggestion from Trask, and I agree.
So Basque is probably a borrowing.
Arnaud
==============

Latin solum 'ground, floor' < *tS:olV ~ PNC *tS:Hælu 'earth, ground, sand'.
From this source we've also got (Cantabrian) Basque sor(h)o 'meadow, field'
and (native) sahil 'plot of land' < *tS:ahlV

Generally derived from Pie *sel
Arnaud
===========
Latin turris 'tower' < *t'wo:?-rV ~ PNC *t'we:l?e 'stick; beam, cross-beam'.
From this source we've got also (Cantabrian) Basque -tor, -tur(ru) in
galdor, galdur(ru) 'summit' and similar words and also (native) zil 'penis'
< *t'wi:?lV

The Latin word is supposed to be from Greek, the Greek origin itself being
unclear.
Tags: лингвистика, этнология
Subscribe

  • Post a new comment

    Error

    Anonymous comments are disabled in this journal

    default userpic

    Your reply will be screened

    Your IP address will be recorded 

  • 0 comments