SUMKA - SUMKA is an Iranian neo-Nazi party. (known as Hezb-e Sosialist-e Melli-ye Kargaran-e Iran, Iran National-Socialist Workers Party).
The party was formed in 1952 by Davud Monshizadeh, a professor at Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, who served with the SS and been injured fighting in Berlin. Before this the name had been used informally to refer to those in Iran who supported Adolf Hitler during the Second World War. As an organised group, they looked to the works of José Ortega y Gasset for inspiration, as well as Hitler, and Monshizadeh translated a number of his works into Persian which he hoped would serve as founding principles for the party. Monshizadeh would go on to serve as a Professor of Persian Studies at Alexandria University. Despite building up a minor support base in Iranian universities, the party did not last long. It has been claimed that the party enjoyed funding directly from Mohammad Reza Pahlavi for a time. Funding was also provided indirectly by the United States through their operation in the area codenamed BEDMAN.
The party briefly attracted the support of young nationalists in Iran, with Daryoush Homayoun, who would later rise to prominence, an early member. Monshizadeh was known as something of a Hitler worshipper and aped many of the ways of the Nazi Party, such as their militarism and salute, as well as attempting to approximate Hitler's physical appearance. On this basis the group adopted the swastika and black shirt as part of their uniforms. Alongside this, however, the part was also known for their loyalty to the monarchy and were branded "Shah worshippers".
They were firmly opposed to the rule of Mohammed Mossadegh during their brief period of influence and the group worked alongside Fazlollah Zahedi in his opposition to Mossadegh. Indeed in 1953 they were part of a large crowd of Zahedi supporters who marched to the palace of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi demanding the ousting of Mossadegh. The party would become associated with street violence against the supporters of Mossadegh and the Tudeh Party.
The party eventually passed out of existence, although much of their membership was absorbed by the 'Arya' movement of Brigadier General Hasan Arfa, a largely military based group that had some pro-Nazi tendencies.
A group calling itself SUMKA and claiming to be direct heirs of the original still exist although it remains to be seen how far this revival extended beyond the internet. They now present their two main enemies as being Jews and Arabs, in keeping with the antisemitism and Aryan identity politics of the original party. This group is not connected to the equally minor Iranian National Socialist Party or the Aryan League. This party is against any form of Communism.
Aryan League - The Aryan League (also National Socialist Aryan League) is an Iranian Neo-Nazi political party. It was founded by former members of the Pan-Iranist Party who left that group due to their racialist beliefs. Their stated goal is to: "To return to Iran and her Aryan people their pride & glorious legacy of six thousand years past. To reawaken and restore the ancient Aryan spiritual & cultural heritage and the total eradication of all foreign elements in the modern Iranian society. To ensure the absolute survival & advancement of the Aryan Race-Culture and the ultimate foundation of a Greater Iran."
The conservative Kayhan and Ettelaat newspapers have reported on the possibility that the NSAL and SUMKA actually originate from the Kabud Party, which was the original Nazi Party of Iran that was said to have been directly supported by Nazi Germany and later banned after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in 1941, but remained covertly active.
Political parties with Nazi or fascist inclinations have been banned in Iran since 1941. Since 1980, Iran has hate crime legislation which makes any type of racist political or social entities illegal.